National testing Service

GAT General NTS Preparation Verbal Ability

GAT General NTS Preparation Verbal Ability

The purpose of the Verbal Test is to evaluate and analyze your English comprehension and understanding towards the language. The questions will be basically asked to judge the sentence completion, analogy and critical reading skills. The questions of different types i.e. about sentence completion and analogy testing will be asked randomly. The questions about the critical reading however will be asked separately.
4.1 About the Verbal Questions
As already discussed, this section will consist of the following types of questions i.e. sentence completion, analogy and the critical reading. The detail about each section is as below;
4.1.1 Sentence Completion
The questions that come under this category are provided with various choices. You are asked to complete the sentences by filling in the blanks with the most suitable choice.
The questions for sentence completion can be related to any of the other areas of study i.e. science, literature, history, geography etc but the subject matter would not hinder your language abilities. You are asked to complete the sentence with the use of correct grammar or vocabulary.
These questions try to determine your ability to recognize the correct sentence structure, right grammar and how you make the correct choice of vocabulary.
Techniques for Sentence Completion 
For the sentence completion a few choices are given that could be selected for completing the sentences. Only one choice is correct out of the several choices. You have to complete the sentence by selecting the correct choice according to the grammar or vocabulary. For making the right choice you can benefit from the following techniques;
• After you read the incomplete sentence do not look at the choices. Try to think about the correct answer yourself. If you think that you have completed the sentence and found the correct choice you can consult your list of choices. If the answer you thought matches one of the choices mentioned in the list that is most probably the right choice to be marked. If it does not match with the choice you can look for a synonym replacement. This tactic is very helpful in finding the right answer, it prevents you from confusing yourself with the wrong choices. • Do not select the choice hastily. Even if you are satisfied with your choice try to substitute it with the other choices so that you are more satisfied with your decision. Sometimes the other choice fits more appropriately to the sentence.
• When you are asked to complete a sentence, which has two spaces to be filled in, try to put the first word of every choice in the first blank. Note down the choice that you find best. Now for the second blank try every second choice of all choices. Note the choice that you think is most appropriate. Check if the two selected choices are matching one of the given pair of choices. If it does then select it as your correct choice, if not then consider this pair as a wrong choice and try with the other choices.
• If you find difficulty in making sense out of certain words and you are not very familiar with them you can try to make a guess with reference to the context of the sentence. Try to break the word into various parts and analyze its meaning e.g. if you do not know the meaning of the word “civilization” break it into two i.e. ‘civilize’ and ‘ation’ now you may know the meaning of civilize and through the term ‘ation’ you can make out that the word is a noun of civilize. If you find the word unfamiliar with prefixes and suffixes divide the word into its parts e.g. prerecording. This word consists of both prefix and suffix. You can break the word like pre-record-ing. Here you know that pre means before, record means to store and -ing is a term of continuous tense. So you can find this break up of words quite helpful in making out the right sense. If none of the technique works try making a guess with reference to the context.

• When long and complex sentences confuse you then try to break that sentence into smaller more sentences by rephrasing it. After you divide it compare with the original sentence to avoid any misinterpretation. If you are satisfied read the smaller sentences to get the idea more clearly.

Example Questions

1. Multan ___________ a very hot climate.

A. Has
B. Have
C. Has been
D. With

2. One of the least effective ways of sorting information is learning
_________ it.

A. Repeat
B. Repeating
C. To repeat
D. how repeat

3. Salman finished__________ two of his published compositions before
his twelfth birthday.

A. Written
B. Writing
C. To write
D. Wrote

4. Jamila __________ collect stamps, but now she has other interests.

A. Used to
B. Was used to
C. Used to be
D. Using to

5. After passing through a great trauma of her husband’s death, she
__________ hard to achieve mental relaxation.

A. Struggled
B. Struggling
C. Struggle
D. To struggle

6. In partnership with Pakistan, South Korea ____________on Motor way.

A. Helped worked
B. Helping work
C. Helped working
D. To help working

7. We will wait if you __________ go.

A. Wanted to
B. Want
C. Want to
D. Wanting to

8. If I had more time I ____________ checked my paper.

A. Would have
B. Would
C. Would had
D. Will have

9. I thought that he___________ coming today.

A. Has been
B. Is
C. Was
D. Has

10. That professor enjoys teaching and ___________.

A. Writing
B. Written
C. To write
D. Write

11. Just __________the files on my table.

A. Let
B. Leaves
C. Stay
D. Leave

12. Thank you for __________ me your book.

A. Borrowing
B. Lending
C. Borrowed
D. Had lent

13. ____________ discovery of insulin, it was not possible to treat
diabetes.

A. Prior
B. Before to the
C. Prior to the
D. To prior the

14. Distribute the handouts ___________ the candidates.

A. Between
B. Among
C. To
D. In

15. Only _________ were present at the seminar.

A. a few people
B. a little people
C. a few peoples
D. the little people

Answer Key

1. A
2. C
3. B
4. A
5. A
6. C
7. C
8. A
9. C
10. A
11. D
12. B
13. C
14. B
15. A

4.1.2 Analogy Questions

Analogy means similarity in examples or describing likeness between two or more words. These questions ask the reader to analyze the relationship between two words in a pair and look for another similar or equivalent pair of words. You are provided with five other pairs of words. You are expected to match the original pair, which is given in the question with one of the pairs in the given choices on the bases of similar relationships between them. This exercise or such questions try to determine your basic understanding towards vocabulary and your ability to recognize the relationship between words. Some questions may also ask you to select a suitable antonym for a given word. Techniques for Analogy Questions For the analogy questions you can follow the guidelines mentioned below;

• Do not read the choices before you have analyzed the relationship between the pair of words, yourself. Try to understand the words more appropriately and think on which basis the relationship between the words is formed. After you reach a conclusion read the given choices afterwards to get a proper match with another pair having the same relationship. • When you find yourself stuck with a word of difficult vocabulary, do not feel confused. Try to understand its meaning reference to the context or if it is somewhat familiar try to remember where and when you heard the word before. It can be a great help.
• Sometimes you find that there is more than one pair that fits well to the question and is appropriate for the choice, give the original pair a little more thought so that you can further study the relationship between the
words and narrow it down to a more distinct one. After you have been successful in finding a closer relationship you can now scrutinize the two other pairs that confused you earlier. Repeating the same procedure with these words would prove useful.
• Do not get caught up by the tricks of the test makers. Sometimes the questions are provided with very tricky and dodging choices that misguide greatly. Try to think of every choice more specifically and narrowly.
• If you are familiar with the parts of speech and their nature, it can be beneficial in making a more sensible choice. Remember if the words in the original pair are a noun and an adjective, the correct choice you make
should also contain the words in the same grammatical order. Otherwise, your choice is wrong. So, if you are confused with two pairs and cannot choose the correct choice you can easily look at their grammatical order and give preference to the one, which matches the original one.
• Exclude the choice from your consideration that you think is incorrect, e.g. the choices that do not have the same grammatical unit as of the original pair cannot match the original pair in anyway.
Spend more time on considering the more possible choices.
• You should know about the various kinds of analogies that are more frequently asked. Some of the common analogy types are as follows;
i. Synonyms
Some words are linked together in a pair which means the same or has a similar dictionary definition.e.g Pretty-
ii. Describing Qualities
Some pairs have some words in which one word describes the other
word. Heavy- Rain
iii. Class and Member
Some pairs have words which are based on class and member basis
e.g. Electronics-Radio
iv. Antonyms
Some pairs consist of the words that are opposite to each other
e.g.
Love- Hate
v. Describing Intensity
Some pairs consist of the words in which one describes the
intensity of the other e.g.
Smile-Laughter
vi. Function
In some pairs a word describes the function of the other word e.g.
Pen-Write
vii. Manners
Some words in a speech describe the manners and behavior e.g.
Polite-Speech
viii. Worker-Workplace
Some pairs in a word describe the profession and its workplace e.g.
Doctor-Clinic

Example Questions

1. HEIGHT: MOUNTAIN

(A) Depth : Trench
(B) Shade : Tree
(C) Weight : Age
(D) Speed : Highway
(E) Mineral : Mine

2. OBLIVIOUS : AWARENESS

(A) Comatose : Consciousness
(B) Serene : Composure
(C) Erudite : Knowledge
(D) Adroit : Skill
(F) Invigorate : Energy

3. BELLWETHER : BAROMETER

(A) Proselyte : Spark plug
(B) Panhandler : Kill
(C) Embezzler : Abduct
(D) Cynosure : Magnet
(F) Morass : Catalyst

4. ACT : ACTION

(A) Therapy : Thermometer
(B) Oblivion : Obvious
(C) Liturgy : Literature
(D) Image : Imagine
(E) Bowl : Bowdlerize

5. BIBULOUS : DRINK

(A) Rapacious : Clothing
(B) Gluttonous : Food
(C) Altruistic : Money
(D) Vegetarian : Meat
(E) Controversy : Reconcile

6. SONG : RECITAL

(A) Author : Bibliography
(B) Episode : Series
(C) Coach : Team
(D) Dancer : Agile
(E) Poetry : Prose

7. HOUSE : BIG

(A) Home : Live
(B) School : Daily
(C) Water : Cold
(D) Clothes : Socks

8. ANIMAL : MONKEY

(A) Zebra : Giraffe
(B) Stationery: Pencil
(C) Book : Cap
(D) Tree : Wood

9. HEAVY : LIGHT

(A) Fat : Thin
(B) Stupid : Idiot
(C) Rough : Surface
(D) Beautiful : Diary

Choose the lettered word or phrase that is most nearly opposite in
meaning to the word in capital letters.

10. DETER

(A) Twist
(B) Intimidate
(C) Encourage
(D) Straighten
(E) Supply

11. INDIGENOUS

(A) Modern
(B) Alien
(C) Ornamental
(D) Natural
(E) Conceal

12. THERAPEUTIC

(A) Curative
(B) Injurious
(C) Medicinal
(D) Practical
(E) Slander

13. QUIZZICAL

(A) Amused
(B) Unequivocal
(C) Contorted
(D) Dissimilar
(E) Lax

14. ANCILLARY

(A) Dependent
(B) Concomitant
(C) Appendix
(D) Primary
(E) Buffet

15. VIRTUOSO

(A) Wicked
(B) Dazzling
(C) Mediocre
(D) Honorable
(E) Bawdy

Answer Key

1. A 4. D 7. C 10. C 13. B
2. A 5. B 8. B 11. B 14. D
3. A 6. B 9. A 12. B 15. E

4.1.3 Critical Reading Questions
Questions related to critical reading try to judge your reading skills and how you understand and interpret what you read. The paper includes a few passages that ask answering questions related to the passage.
Techniques for Critical Reading Exercises There are a few techniques related to the Critical Reading Questions that prove to be a good guideline for solving such questions.
• Do not read the questions before reading the whole passage. Try to skim through the whole passage and then read the questions to look for a more specific answer. Read the passage quickly with understanding but do not panic. Try to analyze what the whole passage is about and what the author really intends to convey.
While reading mark the lines where you think the passage carries the most important points. These strategies would definitely help you find the answers.
• When you find yourself stuck with a question, do not waste your time on it and go ahead for the next questions. Sometimes, answering other questions guide you about the earlier question. But, if you still
do not find the answer mark it for doing in the end more calmly, having enough time to think.
• Try to familiarize yourself with the types of critical reading questions. Once you know the nature of such questions, you will be able to find the answers more quickly even when you are reading the
passage. The examples of some commonly asked questions are as follows:
o Central Idea
Mostly, questions are asked to explain the central idea or main theme of the whole passage, which analyzes how you skim through it. Sometimes, the opening and closing lines can give you a better clue about answering such questions properly.
o Specific Details
Sometimes to analyze your scanning abilities you are asked to answer some specific details about the passage. Such questions are about ‘when’, ‘where’, ‘which’ and ‘who’. You can get the answers of this kind of questions from the area of the passage which you marked in the first reading, where you think the most
important and informational remarks of the author lies.
o Making Inferences
Most of the questions ask you to infer from the passages, making your opinion about what is said in the paragraph, implying meaning and making your own point of view. These questions try to assess your judgment; you must be clear in your mind about what the author is referring to and then make your own opinion according to your understanding and comprehension. Read and think about all the choices and analyze each of it logically according to your comprehension rather than the author’s point of
view.

o Meaning in Context
Some selected words from the passage are pointed out to explain them with reference to the context to check your reading comprehension. Sometimes the word that describes something in
a dictionary portrays it the other way when it appears in the context. The test tries to judge your ability to make sense of the word in the context.
o Author’s Approach
Some questions ask you to explain the mood in which the author is writing whether it is sarcastic, humorous, witty, sad etc. When you are asked questions like these you can look for certain expressions, words, phrases or exclamations, which describe the tone, mood or style of the author. The feelings of the writer are
mostly exhibited through choice of words. While answering these questions read the message carefully observing particularly the use of words.
o Title Selection
Some passages ask for selecting a title that best suits the passage. Remember that the chosen title should not be narrowly or broadly selected. Try to avoid choosing those titles that describes only one or two paragraphs but the one, which is applicable to the whole passage and portrays it best.

Example Questions

Passage I:

We are profoundly ignorant about the origins of language and have to content ourselves with more or less plausible speculations. We do not even know for certain when language arose, but it seems likely that it goes
back to the earliest history of man, perhaps half a million years. We have no direct evidence, but it seems probable that speech arose at the same time as tool making and the earliest forms of specifically human
cooperation. In the great Ice Ages of the Pleistocene period, our earliest human ancestors established the Old Stone Age culture; they made flint tools and later tools of bone, ivory, and antler; they made fire and cooked their food; they hunted big game, often by methods that called for considerable cooperation and coordination. As their material culture gradually improved, they became artists and made carvings and engravings on bones and pebbles, and wonderful paintings of animals on the walls of caves. It is difficult to believe that the makers of these Paleolithic cultures lacked the power of speech. It is a long step Admittedly, from the earliest flint weapons to the splendid art of the late Old Stone Age: the first crude flints date back perhaps to 500,000 B.C., while the finest achievements of Old Stone Age man are later than 100,000 B.C.; and, in this period, we can envisage a corresponding development of language, from the most
primitive and limited language of the earliest human groups to a fully developed language in the flowering time of Old Stone Age culture.
How did language arise in the first place? There are many theories about this, based on various types of indirect evidence, such as the language of children, the language of primitive societies, the kinds of changes that have taken place in languages in the course of recorded history, the behavior of higher animals like chimpanzees, and the behavior of people suffering from speech defects. These types of evidence may provide us with useful pointers, but they all suffer from limitations, and must be treated with caution. When we consider the language of children, we have to remember that their situations are quite different from that of our earliest human ancestors, because the child is growing up in an environment where there is already a fully developed language, and is surrounded by adults who use that language and are teaching it to him.
For example, it has been shown that the earliest words used by children are mainly the names of things and people (“Doll,” “Spoon,” “Mummy”):
but, this does not prove that the earliest words of primitive man were also the names of things and people. When the child learns the name of an object, he may then use it to express his wishes or demands: “Doll!: often means “Give me my doll!” Or “I’ve dropped my doll: pick it up for me!”;
the child is using language to get things done, and it is almost an accident of adult teaching that the words used to formulate the child’s demands are mainly nouns, instead of words like “Bring!”’ “Pick up!”; and so on.

1 The main idea of this excerpt is

A. to provide evidence of the origin of language.
B. to present the need for language.
C. to discuss how early man communicated.
D. to present the culture of early man.
E. to narrate the story of English.
F.

2 Theories of the origin of language include all of the following EXCEPT

A. Changes occurring through the years.
B. The need to communicate.
C. Language of children.
D. The first man’s extensive vocabulary.
E. Communication among primitive men.

3 The purpose of the discussion of the word, “Doll,” is intended to

A. Trace the evolution of a noun.
B. Support the fact that naming things is most important.
C. Indicate how adults teach language to children.
D. Show the evolution of many meanings for one word.
E. Evince man’s multiple uses of single words

4 The implication of the author regarding the early elements of language is that

A. There were specific real steps followed to develop our language.
B. Care must be exercised when exhuming what we consider the roots of language.
C. We owe a debt of gratitude to the chimpanzee contribution.
D. Adults created language in order to instruct their children.
E. Language was fully developed by primitive man.

5 If we accept that primitive man existed for a very long period of
time without language, then we may assume that

A. Language is not necessary to man’s existence.
B. Language developed with the developing culture of primitives.
C. Primitives existed in total isolation from one another.
D. Children brought about a need for language.
E. Mankind was not intended to communicate.

6 After a reading of this article, one might infer that

A. Society creates problems with language.
B. Language is for adults to instruct children.
C. Society uses language to improve itself.
D. With the evolution of language came wisdom.
E. Language brings power.

Answer Key

1. A 2. D 3.C 4. B 5. B 6. E

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